Dairy type of Cow farming is a serious, profitable enterprise primarily as a result of a dairy farm is an ‘all season’ enterprise. Regardless of the season the demand for milk is both fixed or will increase. There has by no means been a lower within the demand for milk and milk merchandise in India.
Dairy Farming in India
Dairy farming has been an age-old enterprise in India handed down from technology to technology. In the course of the late 20th century, this custom noticed a decline. Nevertheless, due to the developments made in science and know-how, an enormous progress has been made. The contribution made by Amul within the type of ‘White Revolution’ performed an important function in remodeling the dairy business in India from its stagnation degree to a world chief.
Cows farms and buffalo farms are the inspiration of the dairy business. Breeds of buffaloes like Jaffarbadi, Mehsani and Murrah are the excessive breeding ones whereas Purple Sindhi, Gir, Rathi and Sahiwal are the highest milk breeders from India.
Things You Need to Know Before Starting Dairy Farming
Like another farming, dairy farming additionally has an inventory of pre-requisites. A few of these are as beneath:
- Affection in the direction of cows and buffaloes
- Primary cleanliness practices
- Information about managing dairy farm scientifically
- Enterprise ways
- Able to work onerous day and evening with no vacation
The above listing is a fundamental listing that may go limitless. Business dairy farming could be very completely different from the normal farming because it has a whole lot of technological necessities and challenges.
Selecting Cow for Dairy Farm
That is the primary requirement for a profitable Cow farming. The animals have to be wholesome, with good weight and construct. Whereas buying Cow the eyes, nostril, udders, mobility, coat and different options have to be rigorously noticed.
- Eyes: Eyes have to be clear and vivid with no discharge. They have to not seem bloodshot or crusty as they’re indicative of infections.
- Nostril: A moist muzzle with fixed licking is favorable.
- Respiration: The respiratory of the cows have to be regular and never laborious or irregular. Wheezing throughout respiratory with or with out discharge suggests an infection.
- Coat: The coat have to be clear and shiny with no indicators of ticks and lice. In case of ticks, the coat would seem matted.
- Udder: Udders have to be wholesome with outstanding milk veins sitting ahead. They have to not be sagging or meaty in look. As well as the udders should not present an excessive amount of sideways motion when strolling.
- Angle: Animals are typically alert and curious with a self-contented, calm look. They transfer about in herd and are collectively. Animals that stand aside or appear disinterested within the happenings round are indicators of unhealthiness.
- Age: The age of the animal have to be checked by wanting on the dentition though this isn’t precisely an indication of excellent well being. You should discover out the age of the Cow to organising and handle a dairy farm effectively.
- Mobility: Animals should rise simply from sitting place with none limps or problem. Sitting in hunched place, limping are indicators of abnormalities or deformities.
- Historical past: You will need to have a look at the historical past of the animal together with particulars like earlier calvings, milk yield, hypocalcemia, and so on.
Shelters in Dairy Farm
Shelters for animals are an essential issue for optimizing the yield. Stress and climate modifications trigger a decline in productiveness. The housing amenities have to be clear, spacious and should enable movement of pure air and daylight.
Home Building in Dairy Farm
The Cow shed should have a flooring area of 10 ft by 5.5 ft per animal with a 1.5% slope in the direction of the drain. The ground have to be made from tough concrete materials. The sheds have to be at the very least 10 ft excessive. They might be constructed utilizing bricks, RCC or could be thatched. Solely the western facet of the shed have to be walled whereas the opposite three sides have to be left open. Nevertheless, the open sides have to be coated with gunny material throughout winter to guard the animals from chilly. There also needs to be a provision for sprinkling water on the animals each half hour throughout summer time. This reduces warmth stress to an excellent extent. The japanese facet of the shed is open open air without spending a dime roaming area. The roaming space is roofed with bushes offering shade. Neem and mango bushes are probably the most most well-liked bushes for shade within the roaming space.
The mangers are positioned on the western facet of the shed. They’re constructed 1 foot above the ground degree; they’re 2 ft large and 1.5 ft deep. Ingesting water have to be stored beside the manger. The mangers are typically constructed together with the shed building. At some locations, they could present a separate field as mangers.
Warmth Stress Administration in Dairy Farming
Animals are extraordinarily delicate to warmth and warmth stress impacts their milk manufacturing to an excellent extent. Following are the noticeable signs of warmth stress:
- Panting quick
- Presence of froth or drool across the mouth
- Seen chest motion
- Extreme drooling with open mouth
- Prolonged neck
A number of of the above signs occurring collectively are indicators of warmth stress. As mentioned earlier than the sheds should have satisfactory air circulation and sprinklers to spray water. Water evaporation from the physique results in cooling of the physique. Thus the physique temperature decreases and the animals are comfy. Subsequently, meals vitality is utilized for milk manufacturing and never in different bodily features like blood pumping, respiratory, panting, and so on.
Animal Feeding in Dairy Farming
Meals is without doubt one of the most elementary facets of residing beings for they perish owing to lack of meals. Cow feeding price a complete of 70% of the milk manufacturing. Cattle are fed with fodder, grains, brans, inexperienced fodder, straw, oil desserts and different such Cow feed.
The feed for a standard grownup animal is 15-20 Kg of inexperienced fodder and 6 Kg of dry fodder per day. The inexperienced fodder is harvested in the course of the flowering stage and the excess fodder is preserved for hay. Preserved fodder is used throughout summers when recent inexperienced fodder is unavailable. It’s essential to strike a stability between the varied nutrient necessities for optimum milk manufacturing. If the animals are given an unique dry fodder weight loss plan, then they have to be given Urea Molasses Mineral Block because the complement. They’re additionally fed with bypass protein feed or compound cow feed for an environment friendly manufacturing of milk and higher physique upkeep. In case the feed wants altering, the change should happen regularly. To extend digestibility and scale back wastage, fodder is chaffed and they’re fed 3-Four instances a day in equal intervals. This rationing is an try at decreasing wastage and growing digestibility.
Water is required for digestion, nutrient distribution, excretion, upkeep of physique temperature and naturally, milk manufacturing. Each liter of milk produced wants a further 2.5 liters of water since milk comprises 85% of water. Therefore, a standard wholesome grownup animal requires 75 to 80 liters of water per day normally. This will enhance to 100 liters throughout summers. They should have common entry to scrub consuming water. Crossbred buffaloes and cows are given a shower twice a day throughout summer time to take care of their physique temperature.
Feminine calves have to be given excellent care and correct diet to make sure wholesome and speedy development. Fast development helps them attain puberty early. They calve at 2 to 2.5 years of age if given well timed insemination. Most care have to be taken throughout final three months of being pregnant because the foetus develops quickly presently. The every day meals requirement of a pregnant animal is as beneath:
Inexperienced Fodder 15-20 Kg
Dry Fodder 4-5 Kg
Compound Cow Feed Three Kg
Oil cake 1 Kg
Mineral Combination 50 Gm
Salt 30 Gm
The next factors have to be thought of with utmost precedence whereas taking good care of pregnant animals:
- Present sufficient area for standing and sitting comfortably.
- They have to be given satisfactory quantities of ration to make sure well timed milk manufacturing in satisfactory quantities and likewise to cut back the potential of milk fever, ketosis, and so on. on the time of calving.
- Throughout being pregnant, particular consideration have to be paid to water necessities; there ought to be around the clock provide of fresh, consuming water.
- Over the last trimester of being pregnant, the animals should not be taken far-off for grazing and uneven paths for grazing have to be prevented.
- Lactating animals have to be dried inside 15 days after the seventh gestation month.
- From the sixth or seventh month of being pregnant, the cow’s physique, again and udders have to be massaged- that is particularly in case of first or second being pregnant (heifer cows).
- Heifer cows are tied together with the milking animals from the sixth or seventh month of being pregnant.
- The pregnant animals are tied individually in a clear and dry space with ample daylight about 4-5 days earlier than calving.
- Paddy straw is the bedding materials for animals and they’re unfold on the bottom.
- Over the last 2 days earlier than calving the animals are stored beneath statement.
Submit Calving Care and Diet
Throughout calving, animals bear a whole lot of stress. Therefore they might have a low urge for food and have a tendency to eat far lesser than what their physique wants. For the reason that urge for food is low the cows and buffaloes are given boiled rice, wheat bran, wheat combined with edible oil, jaggery, boiled millet, rice gruel, ginger, black cumin, and so on. The meals have to be gentle, heat, palpable and mildly laxative. This kind of weight loss plan have to be given for 2-Three days after calving and it helps in early expulsion of placenta. It advisable to present the animals recent inexperienced fodder and water. Whereas the ration meals have to be heat, the water should not be boiled or scorching. It ought to be recent water. Clear consuming water could be very crucial for milking cows else they’re prone to develop ailments.
Taking Care of the New child
The lifetime of a calf is split into 2 components as the primary 24 hours after beginning and the remainder of the interval.
Half 1- First 24 Hours
The primary 24 hours has a deep reference to its life later. If not given correct care, the calf might develop ailments, perish or be an underperformer. The primary hour after beginning is known as because the ‘golden hour’ since it is a crucial interval. The next factors have to be taken care of throughout that interval:
- Clear the mouth and nostrils to assist it breathe
- Enable the mom to lick the calf clear because it stimulates circulation and helps the calf rise up and stroll.
- Give the calf 2 litres of colostrum (first milk produced) inside the first 2 hours of beginning after which once more 1-2 liters relying on weight of the calf inside the subsequent 10 hours.
- The calves have to be de-wormed each month upto 6 months of age as soon as the calf is about 2 weeks outdated.
- Vaccination have to be completed on the age of three months.
- Calves have to be supplied with starters for good development and early maturity from the 2nd week of beginning.
Significance of Colostrum
Colostrum is a crucial feed for new child milk particularly is comprises excessive quantities of proteins and antibodies which assist construct immunity. It helps the calf thrust back infections. Most calves don’t nurse satisfactory quantity of colostrum from their moms due to this fact hand feeding is important. This ensures that the calf has the required quantity of colostrum. Nevertheless, feeding colostrum after the primary 24 hours has handed wouldn’t assist in avoiding infections or constructing immunity.
Diseases in Cow Farming
After calving there’s a enormous demand of vitamins, minerals and different necessities necessities within the physique. Except managed correctly, animals very simply develop metabolic ailments that may have an effect on milk manufacturing drastically. If not given well timed therapy it’d even result in demise. The next are a number of the ailments that will develop in the course of the interval after calving:
Diseases attributable to Defective Feeding
The digestive system of cattle is a posh one involving 4 completely different chambers, a number of microbes, and so on. Therefore any change in feeding sample would result in imbalance within the microbes and therefore completely different ailments like bloating, laminitis and rumen acidosis. Whereas dwelling cures can deal with bloating, laminitis and acidosis want a veterinary care.
That is main illness inflicting heavy loss in dairy farming. It may well result in decrease milk manufacturing, everlasting harm to udders and even demise in extreme circumstances. This illness is on the rise owing to increasingly more farmers choosing crossbreeding. Unique breeds like Jersey are additionally extremely vulnerable to mastitis. A option to take care of the illness is to know it correctly and provides well timed therapy. A few of the practices adopted possibly:
- Thorough cleansing of udders earlier than milking
- Fast, hygienic and full milking
- Teat dipping or spraying the teats after milking. This observe have to be continued even after drying.
- Correct fly management
- Milk the cattle with power mastitis on the finish.
- Don’t let the animals sit for at the very least half hour after milking.
Vaccination in Dairy Farming
There are some extremely deadly ailments like foot and mouth ailments, black quarter, hemorrhagic septicemia, rabies, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, theileriosis and anthrax which might be endemic in nature. These trigger heavy losses to the dairy enterprise. Luckily they are often managed by vaccination.
Potential in Dairy Farming
Apart from the uncooked milk there’s a enormous market of milk merchandise like powdered milk, ghee, cheese and so on. Even the waste in dairy farming is efficacious and has good market demand. The ‘gobar’ or cow dung is the uncooked meterial of natural compost or vermicompost. When you’re utilizing ‘desi cow’ or Indian cow breed in your cow farm then the cow urine is a helpful useful resource to make ‘panchagavya’ or pure insecticide in natural farming.
Taking care of and sustaining good animal well being is the gateway to profitable dairy farming in India. Upkeep of animal well being, taking care of its breeding and diet supplemented with correct data system is useful. The federal government has created Data Community for Animal Productiveness and Well being (INAPH) for the advantage of farmers. It information the on-field cattle actions, schedules and diet. This channel in flip helps the farmer for regularization of his or her dairy farming enterprise.